Meidum: Ancient Egypt’s Only Pyramid That Was Both A Smooth-Sided And Stepped Pyramid  

Djoser - Wikipedia

Djoser Pyramid

Djoser Funerary Complex


The painted limestone statue of Djoser, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, is the oldest known life-sized Egyptian statue. Today, at the site in Saqqara where it was found, a plaster copy of it stands in place of the original. The statue was discovered during the Antiquities Service Excavations of 1924–1925.  


See Djoser


The pharaoh Djoser's Ka statue peers out through the hole in his serdab, ready to receive the soul of the deceased and any offerings presented to it.


See Serdab


The reopening of the Unas pyramid is part of a larger plan of the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities to open more archaeological sites to attract tourists.

‘’We’re planning to make other sites at the Abusir necropolis accessible to the public, like the tomb of Vizier Ptahshepses, the pyramids of Sahura and Neferirkare,’’ said Sabry Farag, director of the Saqqara and Abusir necropolis sites.





A painting by A. Bollacher and E. Decker depicting the pyramids of Neferirkare Kakai (left), Nyuserre Ini (middle) and Sahure (right). Further in the background the figures of sun temples can be made out. In the very far background, three other pyramids can be detected. Taken from Ludwig Borchardt's Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Ne-User-Re (1907).

Pyramid of Neferirkare  The pyramid of Neferirkare was built for the Fifth Dynasty pharaoh Neferirkare Kakai in the 25th century BC. It was the tallest structure on the highest site at the necropolis of Abusir, found between Giza and Saqqara, and still towers over the necropolis. The pyramid is also significant because its excavation led to the discovery of the Abusir Papyri.
Abusir Papyri  
Sarcophagus of Ramses II’s Chief Treasurer Discovered at Saqqara    
Sarcophagus of Sekhemkhet 

 Mysterious ‘Sarcophagus’ of Sekhemkhet said to have been carved from one solid block of ‘Egyptian alabaster’ with sliding door. Dated from 2649 – 2643 BC

"In the middle of a rough-cut chamber lay a magnificent sarcophagus of pale, golden, translucent alabaster" under the Sekhemkhet Pyramid at Saqqara.” The only opening was sliding panel at one end, slid into position from the top.

When found, in 1954, the box was completely sealed--and no body was found inside. The pyramid was so named because they found the title "Sekhemkhet" on the lids of jars found at the same location.

Apis (deity)  
Bull Of Heaven  
Inside the Red Pyramid of Sneferu  
The oldest Egyptian writing on papyrus relates to the Great Pyramid of Giza  
 Radiocarbon dating verifies ancient Egypt's history  
Egyptian woman archaeologist discovers sarcophagus near Cairo   


Tanis Day Tours

Iry-Hor - Wikipedia The world’s oldest known historical figure for which we have a name was Egypt’s first Pharaoh Iry-Hor who lived about 600 to 700 years before the Pyramids of Giza way back in the 32nd century BC
The 32nd century BC lasted from the year 3200 BC to 3101 BC. That’s about 5,200 years ago
Mnevis Sacred Bull of Heliopolis  
 Mortuary Temple  
Tarkhan dress  
Deir el Bersha  
Early Egyptian Queen Revealed in 5,000-Year-Old Hieroglyphs  

The Forgotten City Beneath Egypt

A short tale about the lost city of Naukratis of Greek origin drowned beneath the Nile


Sunken Egypt



The Foundation 

 Sphinx of Memphis
The Sphinx of Memphis is a stone sphinx located near the remains of Memphis, Egypt. The carving was believed to take place between 1700 and 1400 BC, which was during the 18th Dynasty. It is unknown which pharaoh is being honored and there are no inscriptions to supply information. The facial features imply that the Sphinx is honoring Hatshepsut or Amenhotep II or Amenhotep III.
It’s 26 feet/8 meters long and 13 feet/4 meters high.
It’s carved from Calcite and is the largest Calcite statue in the world. It’s the only Sphinx with the curious striations or lines on it which you can see in the closeup.

  Great Sphinx of Tanis

 Great Sphinx of Tanis
The Louvre Museum’s Egyptian Department contains over 50,000 pieces housed in 20 rooms. Here’s one of them: The Great Sphinx of Tanis, from 2000 BC, which is one of the largest sphinxes outside of Egypt. Found in 1825 among the ruins of the Temple of Amun at Tanis (the capital of Egypt during the 21st and 22nd dynasties), it’s inscribed with the names of the Pharaohs Ammenemes II (1929-1895 BC), Merneptah (1212-02 BC) and Shoshenq I (945-24 BC).
The restoration took place on the grounds of the Crystal Palace in Sydenham Hill, London, which you can see in the old photograph.

Many people think the Great Sphinx is from 12,000 years ago and from a lost civilization but then why are there similar Sphinxes like this that a smaller size in other major locations like Memphis and Tanis, two former capital cities of the Ancient Egyptians?

Twelth Dynasty The chronology of the Twelfth Dynasty is the most stable of any period before the New Kingdom. The Turin Royal Canon gives 213 years (1991–1778 BC). Manetho stated that it was based in Thebes but from contemporary records it is clear that the first king of this dynasty, Amenemhat I, moved its capital to a new city named "Amenemhat-itj-tawy" or Itjtawy. The location of Itjtawy has not been discovered yet, but is thought to be near the Fayyum, probably near the royal graveyards at el-Lisht.
Sesostris  In Herodotus' Histories there appears a story told by Egyptian priests about a Pharaoh Sesostris who once led an army northward overland to Asia Minor then fought his way westward until he crossed into Europe, where he defeated the Scythians and Thracians (possibly in modern Romania and Bulgaria). Sesostris then returned home, leaving colonists behind at the river Phasis in Colchis. Herodotus cautioned the reader that much of this story came second hand via Egyptian priests but also noted that the Colchians were commonly believed to be Egyptian colonists. May be fictional.
Manetho & Aegyptiaca Manetho is believed to have been an Egyptian priest-historian from Sebennytos who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early 3rd century BC, during the Hellenistic period. He authored the Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt) in Greek, a major chronological source for the reigns of the kings of ancient Egypt. It is unclear if he wrote his history and king list during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or Ptolemy II Philadelphos but it was completed no later than that of Ptolemy III Euergetes.

Egypt Exploration Society

Founded in 1882

Members can visit them at Cairo office or drop by one of their fieldwork teams

Egyptian Archaeology Magazine

Egypt Exploration Society

 Naqada Culture  

The Naqada Regional Archaeological Survey and Site Management Project


Egypt Exploration Society

Carbon dating shows ancient Egypt's rapid expansion The powerful civilisation of ancient Egypt took just a few centuries to build, according to a radiocarbon dating study that sets the first solid chronology for the period. Five thousand years ago, Egypt became the world’s first territorial state with strict borders, organised religion, centralised administration and intensive agriculture. It lasted for millennia and set a template that countries still follow today. Archaeologists have assumed it developed gradually from the pastoral communities that preceded it, but physicist Mike Dee from the University of Oxford and his colleagues now suggest that the transition could have taken as little as 600 years. The early history of ancient Egypt is murky because although there are plenty of archaeological finds including royal tombs there is no reliable way to attribute firm dates to the various reigns and periods. Radiocarbon dating has previously been of limited use because dating individual objects gives ranges of up to 300 years ---- The researchers used carbon dating to estimate with 68 per cent probability that the first ruler, King Aha, took to the throne between 3111 and 3045 BC, and died between 3073 and 3036 BC. They concluded that the Predynastic period began in 3800-3700 BC so it lasted just 600-700 years, several centuries less than previously thought. This is a period during which Egypt goes through a major transition. It started with small, cattle-owning communities who migrated with the seasons. At the end you’ve got a state. “All the important things that our societies do were invented then”